Research papers on the benefits of Alkaline water.

Below you will find excerpts from articles on alkaline water and health published on, the U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health. These articles are reputable and found in different medical journals.

New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State.
Franceschelli S, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2016.

New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State.
Franceschelli S, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2016.
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It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H₂O₂-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H₂O₂ on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.

PMID 27598129 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID PMC5037740

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Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water.
Xue J, et al. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014.

BACKGROUND: Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a dose-response relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the dose-response relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model.

METHODS: In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2 weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model.

RESULTS: Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH 8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84 ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. However, 8-OHdG level in serum did not have significant hydrogen-dose dependent effect. pH 9.5 showed higher but not significant inhibitory response compared with pH 8.5.

CONCLUSIONS: Hydrogen is effective in relieving the gastric injury induced by aspirin-HCl, and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The reason behind this may be that hydrogen-rich water directly interacted with the target tissue, while the hydrogen concentration in blood was buffered by liver glycogen, evoking a suppressed dose-response effect. Drinking hydrogen-rich water may protect healthy individuals from gastric damage caused by oxidative stress.

PMID 24589018 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID PMC3944674

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Potential benefits of pH 8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease.
Koufman JA1, Johnston N.


At the cellular level, tissue-bound pepsin is fundamental to the pathophysiologic mechanism of reflux disease, and although the thresholds for laryngeal damage in laryngopharyngeal reflux and for esophageal damage in gastroesophageal reflux disease differ, both forms of damage are due to pepsin, which requires acid for its activation. In addition, human pepsin remains stable at pH 7.4 and may be reactivated by hydrogen ions from any source. Thus, most tap and bottled waters (typically pH 6.7 to 7.4) would not be expected to affect pepsin stability. The purposes of these in vitro studies were to investigate whether artesian well water containing natural bicarbonate (pH 8.8) might irreversibly denature (inactivate) human pepsin, and to establish its potential acid-buffering capacity.

Laboratory studies were performed to determine whether human pepsin was inactivated by pH 8.8 alkaline water. In addition, the buffering capacity of the alkaline water was measured and compared to that of the two most popular commercially available bottled waters.

The pH 8.8 alkaline water irreversibly inactivated human pepsin (in vitro), and its hydrochloric acid-buffering capacity far exceeded that of the conventional-pH waters.

Unlike conventional drinking water, pH 8.8 alkaline water instantly denatures pepsin, rendering it permanently inactive. In addition, it has good acid-buffering capacity. Thus, the consumption of alkaline water may have therapeutic benefits for patients with reflux disease.

Link to Article: Potential benefits of pH 8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetes: From Molecular Mechanisms to Functional Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities
Zbigniew Gadek, Takeki Hamasaki, Sanetaka Shirahata

Given their essential function in aerobic metabolism, mitochondria are intuitively of interest in regard to the pathophysiology of diabetes. Qualitative, quantitative, and functional perturbations in mitochondria have been identified and affect the cause and complications of diabetes. Moreover, as a consequence of fuel oxidation, mitochondria generate considerable reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence is accumulating that these radicals per se are important in the pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. In this review, we first present basic concepts underlying mitochondrial physiology. We then address mitochondrial function and ROS as related to diabetes. We consider different forms of diabetes and address both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. We also address the role of mitochondrial uncoupling and coenzyme Q. Finally, we address the potential for targeting mitochondria in the therapy of diabetes.

Link to Article: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetes: From Molecular Mechanisms to Functional Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities.

“Nordenau Phenomenon” – Application of Natural Reduced Water to Therapy.
Zbigniew Gadek, Takeki Hamasaki, Sanetaka Shirahata

This prospective observation study examines changes in the relevant tests parameters of 411 diabetes patients drinking natural reduced water from the “Nordenau Spring”, as well as a correlation of these changes with the fluctuation of the reactive oxygen species in their blood. The average age of the test persons is 71.5 years and the daily consumption of reduced water is as much as two liters. The average duration of stay in Nordenau is 6 days. The diagnostic parameters such as blood sugar, HbA1c, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and serum creatinine concentration are tested twice – at the beginning and at the end of the participants stay in Nordenau. Additionally a random sample of reactive oxygen species in the blood of 136 patients is taken in order to find out its possible causal connections to the diabetes relevant test parameters.HbA1c has been considered as the substantial test parameter in order to break down the whole group into responder and non-responder categories. One hundred and eighty six tested persons or 45% of the total have been assigned to the responder group, meaning that the patients’ HbA1c and blood sugar improved significantly. Furthermore we evaluated among the responder group a portion of patients who in the same time significantly improved their cholesterol, LDL, HDL and serum creatinine concentration average value. This stage of our follow up study regarding type II diabetes patients estimates number needed to treat on four patients in order to achieve the significant improvement of all diabetes relevant parameters. This is a very good quotient; moreover it could be achieved entirely without side effects. The significant improvement of diabetes relevant parameters like blood fats and creatinine can be also beneficial to other diseases like high blood pressure, circulatory disturbance, renal insufficiency or atherosclerotic dementia. In addition to our previous tests, we administered to a random sample group of 136 patients a blood free oxygen radicals test (FORT). The test resulted in a decrease of the ROS of 70.6% of the group or 96 patients. Taking account of the fact that the natural reduced water as well as the electrolyzed reduced water obviously improves in a very short time and entirely without side effects very important metabolic parameters, it can be said that the reduced water shall be considered a useful supplement to the usual orthodox medication of ROS-associated diseases.

Link to Article: “Nordenau Phenomenon” – Application of Natural Reduced Water to Therapy.

Hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities of microalgae Spirulina.
Deng R, Chow TJ.
Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.

Spirulina is free-floating filamentous microalgae growing in alkaline water bodies. With its high nutritional value, Spirulina has been consumed as food for centuries in Central Africa. It is now widely used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide. Recently, great attention and extensive studies have been devoted to evaluate its therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and viral infections. The cardiovascular benefits of Spirulina are primarily resulted from its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities. Data from preclinical studies with various animal models consistently demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of Spirulina. Although differences in study design, sample size, and patient conditions resulting in minor inconsistency in response to Spirulina supplementation, the findings from human clinical trials are largely consistent with the hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina observed in the preclinical studies. However, most of the human clinical trials are suffered with limited sample size and some with poor experimental design. The antioxidant and/or antiinflammatory activities of Spirulina were demonstrated in a large number of preclinical studies. However, a limited number of clinical trials have been carried out so far to confirm such activities in human. Currently, our understanding on the underlying mechanisms for Spirulina’s activities, especially the hypolipidemic effect, is limited. Spirulina is generally considered safe for human consumption supported by its long history of use as food source and its favorable safety profile in animal studies. However, rare cases of side-effects in human have been reported. Quality control in the growth and process of Spirulina to avoid contamination is mandatory to guarantee the safety of Spirulina products.

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pH and Chemotherapy
Raghunand N, Gillies RJ.
University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Cancer Center Division, Tucson 85724-5024, USA.

In vivo pH measurements by magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal the presence of large regions of acidic extracellular pH in tumours, with the intracellular pH being maintained in the neutral-to-alkaline range. This acid-outside plasmalemmal pH gradient acts to exclude weak base drugs such as the anthracyclines and vinca alkaloids, a behaviour that is predicted by the decrease in octanol-water partition coefficients of mitoxantrone and doxorubicin with decreasing solution pH. This pH gradient can be reduced or eliminated in mouse models of breast cancer by systemic treatment with sodium bicarbonate. We have demonstrated tumour alkalinization following chronic ad libitum administration of NaHCO3 and acute intraperitoneal administration of NaHCO3 to tumour-bearing mice. Chronic treatment of tumour-bearing SCID mice with NaHCO3 results in an enhancement in MCF-7 tumour xenograft response to doxorubicin. Intraperitoneal administration of NaHCO3 to tumour-bearing C3H/Hen mice prior to treatment with mitoxantrone results in a greater-than 4.5-fold increase in cell-kill in the syngeneic C3H mammary tumour model. Most combination chemotherapy regimens include at least one weak base drug. Our results suggest that agents such as sodium bicarbonate, Carbicarb and the diuretic furosemide–which are known to induce metabolic alkalosis in humans–may be useful in enhancing the efficacy of these treatment regimens in humans.

Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism.
Wynn E, Krieg MA, Aeschlimann JM, Burckhardt P.
Centre of Bone Diseases, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

BACKGROUND: Dietary acid charge enhances bone loss. Bicarbonate or alkali diet decreases bone resorption in humans. We compared the effect of an alkaline mineral water, rich in bicarbonate, with that of an acid one, rich in calcium only, on bone markers, in young women with a normal calcium intake.

METHODS: This study compared water A (per litre: 520 mg Ca, 291 mg HCO(3)(-), 1160 mg SO(4)(-), Potential Renal Acid load (PRAL) 9.2 mEq) with water B (per litre: 547 mg Ca, 2172 mg HCO(3)(-), 9 mg SO(4)(-), PRAL -11.2 mEq). 30 female dieticians aged 26.3 yrs (SD 7.3) were randomized into two groups, followed an identical weighed, balanced diet (965 mg Ca) and drank 1.5 l/d of the assigned water. Changes in blood and urine electrolytes, C-telopeptides (CTX), urinary pH and bicarbonate, and serum PTH were measured after 2 and 4 weeks.

RESULTS: The two groups were not different at baseline, and showed a similar increase in urinary calcium excretion. Urinary pH and bicarbonate excretion increased with water B, but not with water A. PTH (p=0.022) and S-CTX (p=0.023) decreased with water B but not with water A.

CONCLUSION: In calcium sufficiency, the acid calcium-rich water had no effect on bone resorption, while the alkaline water rich in bicarbonate led to a significant decrease of PTH and of S-CTX.

download full PDF article: Alkali & Bone Metabolism

Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation.
Nishikawa R, Teruya K, Katakura Y, Osada K, etc.
Department of Genetic Resources Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, 812-8581, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.

In the two-stage cell transformation theory, cancer cells first receive initiation, which is mainly caused by DNA damage, and then promotion, which enhances transformation. Murine Balb/c 3T3 cells are widely used for transformation experiments because they lose contact inhibition ability when transformed. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), which is produced near a cathode during electrolysis of water, is an alkaline drinking water that is beneficial to health. ERW contains a high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with a small amount of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (Pt nps) derived from Pt-coated titanium electrodes. Pt nps stably disperse in aqueous solution for a long time, and convert hydrogen molecules to active hydrogen (atomic hydrogen) that can scavenge ROS. Therefore, ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps is a model strong reduced water.

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Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage.
Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y.
Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, ( )-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduce water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH.

download full PDF article: Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA

Postgraduate Symposium: Positive influence of nutritional alkalinity on bone health.
Wynn E, Krieg MA, Lanham-New SA, Burckhardt P.
University Hospital (CHUV), 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

There is growing evidence that consumption of a Western diet is a risk factor for osteoporosis through excess acid supply, while fruits and vegetables balance the excess acidity, mostly by providing K-rich bicarbonate-rich foods. Western diets consumed by adults generate approximately 50-100 mEq acid/d; therefore, healthy adults consuming such a diet are at risk of chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis, which worsens with age as a result of declining kidney function. Bone buffers the excess acid by delivering cations and it is considered that with time an overstimulation of this process will lead to the dissolution of the bone mineral content and hence to reduced bone mass. Intakes of K, Mg and fruit and vegetables have been associated with a higher alkaline status and a subsequent beneficial effect on bone health. In healthy male volunteers an acid-forming diet increases urinary Ca excretion by 74% and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (C-telopeptide) excretion by 19% when compared with an alkali (base-forming) diet. Cross-sectional studies have shown that there is a correlation between the nutritional acid load and bone health measured by bone ultrasound or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Few studies have been undertaken in very elderly women (>75 years), whose osteoporosis risk is very pertinent. The EVAluation of Nutrients Intakes and Bone Ultra Sound Study has developed and validated (n 51) an FFQ for use in a very elderly Swiss population (mean age 80.4 (sd 2.99) years), which has shown intakes of key nutrients (energy, fat, carbohydrate, Ca, Mg, vitamin C, D and E) to be low in 401 subjects. A subsequent study to assess net endogenous acid production (NEAP) and bone ultrasound results in 256 women aged > or = 75 years has shown that lower NEAP (P=0.023) and higher K intake (P=0.033) are correlated with higher bone ultrasound results. High acid load may be an important additional risk factor that may be particularly relevant in very elderly patients with an already-high fracture risk. The latter study adds to knowledge by confirming a positive link between dietary alkalinity and bone health indices in the very elderly. In a further study to complement these findings it has also been shown in a group of thirty young women that in Ca sufficiency an acid Ca-rich water has no effect on bone resorption, while an alkaline bicarbonate-rich water leads to a decrease in both serum parathyroid hormone and serum C-telopeptide. Further investigations need to be undertaken to study whether these positive effects on bone loss are maintained over long-term treatment. Mineral-water consumption could be an easy and inexpensive way of helping to prevent osteoporosis and could be of major interest for long-term prevention of bone loss.

download full PDF article: Positive influence of nutritional alkalinity on bone health

Magnesium in drinking water and death from acute myocardial infarction.
Rubenowitz E, Axelsson G, Rylander R.
Department of Environmental Medicine, Göteborg University, Sweden.

The relation between death from acute myocardial infarction and the level of magnesium in drinking water was examined using mortality registers and a case-control design. The study area comprised 17 municipalities in the southern part of Sweden that have different magnesium levels in the drinking water. Cases were men in the area who had died of acute myocardial infarction between ages 50 and 69 years during the period 1982-1989 (n = 854). The controls were men of the same age in the same area who had died from cancer during the same time period (n = 989). In both groups, only men who consumed water supplied from municipal waterworks were included in the study. The subjects were divided into quartiles according to the drinking water levels of magnesium and calcium and the quotient between magnesium and calcium. The odds ratios for death from acute myocardial infarction in the groups were inversely related to the amount of magnesium in drinking water. For the group with the highest levels of magnesium in drinking water, the odds ratio adjusted for age and calcium level was 0.65 (95 percent confidence interval 0.50-0.84). There was no such relation for calcium. For the magnesium/calcium quotient, the odds ratio was lower only for the group with the highest quotient. These data suggest that magnesium in drinking water is a important protective factor for death from acute myocardial infarction among males.

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Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water.
Heil DP. Movement Science/Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Health & Human Development, H&PE Complex, Hoseaus Rm 121, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT USA.

BACKGROUND: The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK) bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid�, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0.

The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

Read Full Article on Journal of Environ Public Health